A color photo of a 19-year-old, RP-5A assembly line worker, Norma Jeane Baker, was featured in the service publication, Yank, the Army Weekly. Launched from a catapult, the target, painted bright red for visibility, was controlled by a ground-based pilot. The company provides custom, rugged computers and custom contract-manufacturing solutions for defense, aerospace, and industrial applications that involve cold weather and other extreme conditions. But TiAl is more easily machined, exhibiting similar machinability characteristics to alpha-beta titanium, such as Ti6Al4V. Editor's choice: Turbomeca relies on its software to reduce lead times and eliminate risks in parts production. Perhaps more importantly, TiAl has the potential to improve the thrust-to-weight ratio in aircraft engines because it’s only half the weight of nickel alloys. Sandvik Coromant
By simulating and testing we can explore new, more efficient machining strategies.”. In Introduction to Aerospace Materials, 2012. This consultative process can reduce product development time and costs while solving complex problems with superior solutions and packaging. Titanium 5553 (Ti-5553) is another metal that is reasonably new to aerospace, exhibiting high strength, light weight, and good corrosion resistance. With 80,000ft2 of manufacturing space in Sacramento, Calif., CEi possesses the engineering, manufacturing, and management capabilities required for the design, prototyping, testing, production, maintenance, and operational support of its family of aerial target systems. The alloy can also be found in the fuel and oxidizer tanks in the SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle, and is used extensively in NASA rocket and shuttle projects. Approximately 20 years ago, engineers at Turbomeca, a helicopter engine maker, needed a solution that reduced lead times and eliminated risks during production of high-added value parts, including simultaneous 5-axis machining. Learning this system has become an obligation for Turbomeca’s teams. The performance of a global risk assessment, covering export controls, economic sanctions, the FCPA, antiboycott, international antitrust, and other high-risk laws likely applying to the company should be the driver of compliance efforts for most aerospace companies. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Pre-formed composite components aren’t just lightweight and strong, they reduce the number of heavy fasteners and joints – which are potential failure points – within the aircraft. Under these conditions, companies engaged in sophisticated aerospace manufacturing must consider restrictions on giving non-U.S. persons access to, training about, or producing goods with sophisticated equipment or sharing any associated technical data. The G-3 glider developed for the U.S. Army Air Corps was towed aloft by an airplane and released. While CFRPs represent the lion’s share of composite material in both cabin and functional components, and honeycomb materials provide effective and lightweight internal structural components, next-generation materials include ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs), which are emerging in practical use after decades of testing. For aerospace companies that are engaged in global production, operate abroad, or sell abroad, the key compliance considerations will likely include the following: Conducting a classification review: It is impossible to have effective compliance unless the company has precisely catalogued the goods, technology, software, technical data, research equipment, and production equipment that are subject to ITAR and EAR control. But once an operator has proper parameters set, triple 5-3 machines predictably. Of the 38,000 new aerospace engineering jobs that opened up last year, 4,000 of them were taken by students. The Radioplane Corp. is famous for more than just drones. Capable of flying low-and-slow or high-and-fast, Firejet offers users the opportunity to test multiple platforms with one aerial target system. “In these areas, we are working in close collaboration with the innovation teams at Spring. When such violations occur, it can be difficult to convince regulators that the U.S. company was not involved in the conduct at issue or should not, at a minimum, be considered to have knowledge because it did not exercise sufficient oversight over the arrangement or conduct enough due diligence. Also important, composite components can be formed into complex shapes that, for metallic parts, would require machining and create joints. With NCSIMUL Machine we can anticipate all this securely in the virtual environment before taking a chance on reality.”, Today’s multi-purpose NC machines are increasingly complex, so even though other CAM software comes with rendering capabilities, NCSIMUL Machine’s simulation facilitates development of machine post-processors. The modular design allows technicians to replace both turbojet engines by removing only two bolts and a quick-disconnect wire harness. Start studying Chapter 2: Aerospace materials: past, present and future. Extensive research and development has been devoted to making the metal practical to machine, and triple 5-3 has recently proven to be very predictable with machining consistency similar to more traditional titanium alloys like the aforementioned Ti6Al4V. The ability of the government to impose substantial penalties is demonstrated by the $75 million fine on United Technologies Corp. in 2012 for 576 ITAR violations and violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), which forbids bribery of foreign government officials. Aerial targets such as those made by CEi can trace their lineage back to simple fabric-covered aerial target gliders developed by the U.S. military in the 1920s to train coast artillery gunners. Aerospace manufacturers are a breed apart for all of these reasons. Heinzig adds that Secure Communications Systems engineers are not open to compromises that may impact reliability. Still, difficulties exist in workholding, surface finish, and CAM tool paths. In 1945, one of the female production workers caught the eye of an army photographer, David Conover, sent to take pictures of women doing war work. In June 1941, the company Denny founded, Radioplane, started producing the RP-5A aerial target drone, designated as the OQ-2 by the U.S. Army and TDD-1 by the U.S. Navy. Other factors that bear on a company’s risk profile include its compliance history, the potential application of local law, the industry at issue, and whether it appears to be a target of U.S. government enforcement action. Aerospace materials: past, present and future. The two must be in balance, and one can’t really exist outside of the context of the other. Starting in the mid-1930s, motion picture actor and model aviation enthusiast Reginald Denny demonstrated a series of 9ft-long radio-controlled planes with the hope of selling them to the U.S. Army for anti-aircraft target practice. Under both the ITAR and the EAR, the release of controlled technical data to a non-U.S. national is “deemed” an export. All of these compliance difficulties are multiplied due to the global nature of the aerospace industry. The company designs and builds parts from mechanical switches to touch panels to meet or exceed MIL-STDS and other rigorous specifications for environmental conditions, shielding, and lighting conditions. At the time of publication, the U.S. government reportedly was considering imposing the first $10 billion economic sanctions penalty against a French bank, BNP Paribas. Meanwhile, for engine parts and critical components, there is a simultaneous push for lower weight and higher temperature resistance for better fuel efficiency, bringing new or previously impractical-to-machine metals into the aerospace material mix. Titanium was first used in military and commercial aircraft during the 1950s. These concerns have multiplied in recent years as the U.S. government has ramped up enforcement of the ITAR and the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), with the latter regulating the sale of dual-use/commercial products, including civil aircraft, their parts, and components. Because these regulations control military goods, the incorporation of even a single ITAR-controlled item subjects the entire downstream product to U.S. jurisdiction. Audits are intended to combat this tendency, by confirming that compliance in the field is operating as intended by headquarters. After conducting an in-depth study of the two machining simulation solutions, Turbomeca chose Spring Technologies’ NCSIMUL Machine, says Gilles Cazenave-Laroche, head of engineering at Turbomeca’s Excellence Center for rotating parts. www.sandvik.coromant.com. Longer machining times are required for each component, and more time per part makes scrap relatively expensive, when factoring in time investment. 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